(LEARNGLOSSARY

A growing list of helpful terms. 

Agriculture = the cultivating of the soil, producing of crops, and raising of livestock (farming)
Aquatic invertebrate
= animals with no backbone (worms, snails, crayfish, insect larvae)
Biodiversity
= the variety of life in the world, or in a particular habitat or ecosystem
Calcar
= a cartilage, spike-shaped structure that arises from the ankle and extends toward the tail (a spur)
Calcar (Keeled)
= a calcar that extends/protrudes the tail membrane (look for a triangle shape near feet)
Conservation
= the act of keeping & protecting from waste, loss, or destruction
Deforestation
= the cutting down of forests or groups of trees for non-forest use
Echolocation
= process of locating objects using sound waves (used for navigation, hunting, & social calls)
Ecosystem
= all living and non-living things in an area (plants, animals, soil, water, air)
Extirpated 
= a species that is no longer observed in a specific region (some call it a "local extinction")
Foliage
= the leaves, flowers, and branches of a tree
Forage 
= to search for food
Fragmentation
= process of a large habitat area being transformed into smaller, isolated patches
Hibernacula
= a place where bats hibernate during winter (caves, mines, crevices in rocks, built structures)
Hibernation
= a period of time spent in a dormant state during winter
Insectivore
= a species that feeds on only (or mainly) insects
Invasive Species
= species not native to where they are found (can disturb local ecosystems)
Larva (plural, larvae)
= juvenile form of an insect (caterpillar, grub)
Maternity Colony
= a temporary gathering of pregnant female bats for giving birth & raising baby bats (pups!)
Migration
= movement between summer and winter habitats to avoid unfavorable weather conditions
Migratory
= species that migrate (most bat species that roost in trees during summer migrate south for winter)
Mouth, subterminal
= ventral mouth; turned downward
Mouth, terminal
= located in the middle of the head, points forward; jaws the same length
Myotinae
= mouse-eared, silver-haired, and wing-gland bats (a subfamily of Vespertilionidae, vesper bats)
Nocturnal
= active at night
Opercular
= a hard, bony flap that covers & protects the gills of a bony fish
Pesticide
= a chemical substance used to kill insects that harms plants and crops (& the animals that eat them)
Pollution intolerant (sensitive species)
= organisms that cannot survive in poor water quality
Pollution tolerant
= organisms that can survive in poor water quality
Riffle
= shallow, fast moving sections of a stream where rocks break the water surface (adds oxygen to water)
Riparian area
= relating to or living or located on the banks of a natural waterway (river, stream, reservoir)
Roost
= any place wild bats live (trees, caves, mines, built structures, & sometimes bat boxes)
Tragus
= a cartilage structure within the ear, located in front of ear canal (assists in echolocation)
Tubercle
= skin nodules (lumps) made of keratin
Uropatagium
= membrane stretching between legs, encompassing all/parts of tail (assists in flight)
Vespertilioninae
= evening, forest, pipistrelle, & serotine bats (a subfamily of Vespertilionidae, vesper bats)
Wetlands
= areas where water covers or floods the soil (marshes, swamps)
White-nose Syndrome (WNS) 
= fungal disease killing cave-dwelling bats in North America
(whitenosesyndrome.org)
Woodlands = land covered with trees